The automobile wiring harness is a network main body of the automobile circuit, and is a component in which a contact terminal (connector) punched out of copper is crimped with a wire and cable, a plastic pressure insulator or an external metal casing, and the like is bundled by a wire harness to form a connection circuit. It is mainly composed of wires, terminals, connectors and sheaths. Automobile wiring harness products are custom-made products, and different manufacturers and different models have different design schemes and quality standards.
Functionally, there are two types of power lines that carry the power to drive the actuator and signal lines that pass the sensor input commands. The power line is thicker and is mainly used to transmit current. The signal line is a copper multi-core cord, which is mainly used to transmit electrical signals. A complete vehicle wiring harness product covers wire harnesses such as engine harnesses, instrument panel harnesses, and body harnesses. At present, automotive wire harness products generally adopt a global quality management system, but usually different car manufacturers have their own quality management standards, and automotive wire harness products need to meet both industry common standards and automotive manufacturers standards.
The automobile wiring harness is the central nervous system of the automobile, and is the carrier of automobile energy and various signal transportation. It organically connects the central control unit with the automobile control unit, the electrical and electronic execution unit, and the electric device to form a complete automobile electrical appliance. Electronic control system.
According to the statistics of China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, China’s automobile production and sales in 2006 were 7,277,000 and 7.216 million respectively. After ten years of economic growth, urbanization and the improvement of living standards, the demand for automobiles by ordinary households has increased significantly. In 2017, the production and sales volume of automobiles was 29.01 million and 29.12 million. In the past ten years, the sales volume of automobiles has more than tripled. As the sales volume of automobiles continues to rise, the demand for automotive wiring harnesses has also risen sharply, and the market capacity of automotive wiring harnesses has rapidly increased. In the traditional automotive electronics field, the average total value of bicycle wiring harness products is about 2,000 yuan, and some high-end models are even higher. In 2017, China's automobile production was 29.01 million units. Based on the price of bicycle wire harnesses, the annual demand for wire harness products of China Automotive Electronics will exceed RMB 57.8 billion. With the continuous growth of automobile consumption, it is estimated that the size of China's automobile wiring harness market will reach 66.1 billion yuan in 2019.
From the current development situation, the automotive wire harness industry presents three major trends.
1.The rapid development of new energy vehicles will promote the transformation and upgrading of automobile wiring harnesses。
Faced with the increasingly severe global energy shortage and environmental pollution problems, countries and regions represented by the United States, Japan, the European Union and China have begun to transform, and new energy vehicles have been upgraded to national strategies to alleviate energy shortages and reduce environmental pollution. pressure. In the industry trend of rapid development of new energy vehicles, automobile wiring harness is an important development opportunity for design development, process innovation and performance breakthrough as an important automobile basic component. Compared with traditional fuel vehicles, new energy vehicles have higher requirements for harness delivery capability, mechanical strength, insulation protection and electromagnetic compatibility. At present, new energy electric vehicles usually use driving voltages of up to 600V or higher, which is much higher than the 12V voltage of fuel vehicles, requiring wire harnesses with higher pressure resistance and sealing to avoid short circuit of high voltage lines after collision of automobiles. And caused a burning accident. In addition, new energy vehicles use AC motors, and electromagnetic interference is relatively strong. The design of new energy vehicle wiring harness must consider electromagnetic interference to ensure the reliability of wire harness applications.
In 2017, the production and sales volume of new energy vehicles in China reached 794,000 and 777,000, respectively, ranking first in the world for three consecutive years. The cumulative holdings reached 1.8 million, accounting for more than 50% of the global market. The breakthrough growth of new energy vehicles has gradually transformed the domestic automotive wiring harness market from a low-cost strategic market to a more cost-effective market with higher technology content. New energy vehicles have higher driving voltages and require high-voltage wiring harnesses to connect the various circuit units. The high-voltage harness is not only a key component of the high-voltage electrical system of new energy vehicles, but also an important guarantee for the safe and reliable operation of new energy vehicles. Automobile wiring harnesses will seek upgrades and breakthroughs in raw material materials, production processes and product characteristics to achieve high-pressure development. China's local wire harness suppliers have taken the lead in entering the new energy vehicle supply system by virtue of their good supporting relationship with independent new energy vehicles. Some high-quality wire harness enterprises have achieved technological breakthroughs in the design and development of high-voltage wire harnesses, with leading R&D capabilities and huge development potential. .
2.The lightweight of automotive wiring harness products has become a key development area in the future.
In the context of increasing global environmental standards, in order to improve the fuel efficiency of automobiles, automobile manufacturers are vigorously promoting the light weight of automobile production. Body weight reduction will optimize the car's fuel economy, handling stability and collision safety, and effectively improve the car's quality. Affected by this, the lightweight development of automotive wiring harness has also become a key breakthrough area. At present, with the rapid development of electronic and information technology in automobiles, the extensive use of electronic devices in the car makes the electrical wiring in the car longer and more complicated, and the increase in the weight of the automobile wiring harness also leads to the cost and energy consumption of the entire vehicle. The increase in wire harness development goals is becoming more and more important. In terms of weight reduction of automotive wire harness products, in addition to the use of thin-walled wires to reduce the cross-sectional area of wires, the use of aluminum, which is lower in cost and lighter in weight than copper, has become a hot research and development direction for wire harness weight reduction. In the future, aluminum wire is susceptible to oxidation, electrical performance and mechanical instability. Once a mature solution is available, lightweight aluminum wire harnesses are expected to become the focus of automotive wiring harness development.
3.The domestic wire harness leader shows that the future capital competition will accelerate the survival of the fittest.
At present, although there are many domestic automobile wiring harness manufacturers, most of them are small in scale, weak in research and development, production equipment is backward, quality grade is not high, and the supporting models are single, mainly for independent brand processing. With the overall strength of independent brand parts and components enterprises, some leading enterprises in the high-end and high-quality wire harness market have begun to accelerate the industrial capital layout, integrate industrial resources, and fully utilize the technology, customer resources and supporting services. The synergy effect accelerates the survival of the fittest in the industry. In the future, with the development of the automobile industry, the requirements of automobile manufacturers for automobile wiring harness products are more strict and complicated. The wire harness enterprises with smaller scale and weaker strength will face a more severe market environment, and China’s high-quality wire harness enterprises will rely on outstanding The product quality and stable customer resources will further expand market share. In the future, China's wire harness industry will face an industrial environment with survival of the fittest and accelerated resource integration.